Tag Archives: fibonacci

Welcome to Howard County

Fun fact: with over 600 million residents, Baltimore is the largest independent city in the nation. Does that make you scratch your head? When I first moved into the area, it did me. Fortunately, the explanation is simple.

An “independent city” is one that doesn’t exist within the borders of any county. Baltimore County bends all around Baltimore City, enclosing it like a cocoon, except for at its southern tip, where the city abuts Anne Arundel County. The city of Baltimore is entirely independent of any county entanglements, although it’s police department is very much entangled with the state government due to an anti-corruption take-over of the BPD by the state in 1860. Those entanglements persist to this day.

Anyway. The Baltimore metropolitan area now hosts a population of 2.8 million, making it the 21st largest metro area in the United States. The metro area includes the city and six surrounding counties: Baltimore County (the cocoon around the city), Harford County (east), Carroll County (west), Anne Arundel County (south), Queen Anne’s County (east of Anne Arundel across the bay),  and Howard County (southwest). Howard County is, amazingly enough, the setting for my Howard County Mystery series.

Why did I pick that locale? For over 20 years, I’ve lived on the eastern side of Baltimore County. But I’ve worked in Howard County several times, and know the area reasonably well, probably better than I know Baltimore County. Howard County affords me a range of localized settings from the suburban to the rural.  It’s far more rural than Baltimore County, but with areas of reasonably concentrated population. Plus, unlike Baltimore County, it doesn’t wrap itself around a city, so Rick Peller and his associates can move pretty quickly from one area of the county to another as needed.

Then again, there’s rural and there’s rural. I don’t actually think of Maryland as incredibly rural. Although one of the smallest states in the U.S., it’s the fifth most densely populated. While most of that population is concentrated in the Baltimore-Washington D.C. corridor, even most of the state’s rural areas are more heavily populated than the rural areas from which my family hails.

Allow me to demonstrate. Here’s a population density map for Howard County and surrounding areas:

Howard County Population Map

The thicker white lines are the county borders. Howard County is the large area stretching northwest to southeast, with Columbia and Ellicott City as its main population centers. The more rural areas of the county, the lighter orange, have a population density ranging from 101 to 1000 people per square mile.

Now let’s look at Rick Peller’s birthplace, Lockport, New York:

Lockport Population Map

Peller would find the population levels in Howard County familiar, but notice the light pink areas to the east, particularly the location named Dysinger, which is about where Sandra Peller came from. Those areas have a population density of 100 people per square mile or less. That, to me, is what rural is all about. That’s because my grandparents hailed from northwest Ohio. My maternal grandparents lived in the “big city” of Van Wert, while my paternal grandparents had a farm near Scott:

Van Wert Population Map

Rural is in the eye of the beholder, I guess. I consider my Howard County novels to be suburban crime novels, not rural crime novels, even though farms and fields do pop up in them from time to time. The county has some nice open spaces. But you can’t throw a rock too terribly far without hitting someone.

(Maps clipped from the ArcGIS 2012 population map.)

Life Intrusions

Life has a way of intruding on an author’s work.  This happens because, as my wife and editor Kathleen is fond of saying, “Your output is derived from your input.” In ways both subtle and obvious, a writer’s background shapes his writing.

In my case, one such influence dates back to my earliest childhood. For as long as I can remember, the universe has beckoned me. Astronomy was my first love. When other boys might have said they would grow up to be doctors or policemen, I wanted to be an astronomer. My father taught me the constellations and the names of the brightest stars.  In junior high school, I bought a cheap telescope from K-Mart and spent time observing the moon, stars, and sun. In high school I expanded my horizons to cosmology and from there to relativity and quantum physics.

I didn’t actually end up as either an astronomer or a physicist, but my interest in those subjects hasn’t flagged. I have a better telescope today, although still a modest one, and subscribe to Sky and Telescope. I’ve even sold them a couple of essays.

My interest in science and particularly astronomy influenced my literary ambitions, too. In the long ago, I principally read and wrote science fiction. My favorite SF stories to both read and write were those involving the exploration of the universe.

Later I became increasingly interested in mysteries and somewhat disaffected with the direction in which the science fiction genre was heading, but astronomy didn’t get left behind. In The Fibonacci Murders, for example, you’ll find Venus shining in the evening sky, as well as references to the moon and light pollution. Light pollution also figures in the opening scene of my forthcoming novel, Ice on the Bay. My in-progress return to science fiction, Space Operatic, takes place in the inner Oort Cloud.

My other key hobby, bonsai, hasn’t yet worked its way into my writing, but then I’ve only been into the art for about ten years. I have, however, pondered some possibilities. Tomio Kaneko, the Japanese-American mathematician who debuts in The Fibonacci Murders, just might have a son with an interest in bonsai, an art that can yield valuable works through the application of, among other things, sharp instruments.

That sounds about right for a murder mystery, no?

 

It’s the End

In my last two posts I explored two parts of a story’s structure:

  • The beginning, where we encounter main characters, the setting, and the challenges the characters face.
  • The middle, where things become complicated for the characters and tension mounts.

Now we’ve reached the end.

Like the beginning, the end is a relatively short, but for a different reason. Whereas the beginning hooks readers and draws them in, the end resolves the conflicts that carried the reader along. Actually, let’s qualify that. Some conflicts may be resolved in the middle. But the primary conflict can only be resolved at the end. Often a few lesser conflicts stick around until then, too, particularly in a novel. Short stories may only present a single conflict, but longer works will have more.

By definition, the resolution of the primary conflict is a story’s climax, it’s most important and exciting moment. All the tension built up through the middle is released in the climax. In action/adventure stories, this moment is the point when the threat posed by the primary antagonist becomes overwhelming. If the protagonist doesn’t succeed right here and right now, an irreversible catastrophe will result. The terrorists will blow up the building or the aliens will take over the world or the meteorite will crash into the Earth, triggering a mass extinction. In a mystery, the climax often pairs the resolution of the principal crime with mortal danger for the detective or for someone close to them. In a drama, the climax could even be triggered by the protagonist’s own flaws; if they fall victim to their failings, they will loose something important or others will be hurt. In all cases, the climax is the biggest, baddest, most danger-fraught moment in the whole story.

The story’s lesser conflicts can trigger moments like this, too, but generally they are less critical, less intense, and therefore not climactic. They can therefore be resolved in the middle of the story, but if so are usually replaced by larger conflicts or an intensification of the main conflict. The author can give the reader a moment to breath, but only a moment. Tension can’t decline for long, or the reader will wander off in search of a sandwich. But what happens when a lesser conflict persists right up to the climactic moment? Must it be resolved before the main conflict, or can it wait?

In some cases it can and indeed should wait, but order is important. Bear in mind that once the tension is gone, the reader has no reason to keep reading. Conflicts that persist beyond the climax have an inglorious name: “loose ends.” They must be tied up, but because the principal source of tension is gone, they must be tied up quickly. When the business of tying up loose ends drags on, readers rightly get bored and feel that the book should have ended sooner. In the worst case, they may suspect the book was “padded” to make them pay more for it–a feeling that also arises from middles where too little happens for too many pages. Conversely, a book that suddenly ends after a strong climax may leave readers feeling like they were dropped off of an emotional cliff. The less intense resolution to a loose end or two affords  us time to “come down” gracefully rather than plummet. On the other hand, the author of a series might leave something unresolved as a “cliffhanger,” a way of inviting you to the next book in the series where, one hopes, the remaining conflict will eventually be resolved.

You may sense a theme here: writers play on your emotions through story structure. The good ones do it so well that you’re left clamoring for their next book!

By way of illustrating these concepts, I’ll invoke my novel The Fibonacci Murders. Therein, a series of murders takes place, with tension ratched up through an increasing body count, the cryptic nature of the killer’s notes to the police, a mathematical switch he pulls mid-stream, and the discovery that his final crime must be one of horrific proportions. Along the way, a second series of crimes occurs. Less severe than the murders, it nevertheless causes a PR nightmare for the police and is resolved only when the murderer kills its perpetrator. That’s one conflict removed, but it hardly decreases the tension–just the opposite. And then a new wrinkle develops: Tom Kaneko, the mathematician who has been assisting the police, privately devises a plan to find the killer and strikes out on his own, unwittingly placing himself in mortal danger. The killer captures him but must execute his final crime, so he trusses Kaneko up and dumps him in the woods, planning on dealing with him later. Now the climax arrives: the killer is stopped mere seconds before committing a mass murder.

End of story? Not quite. Kaneko is still out there in the woods, injured, bound, and gagged. That’s a loose end: I couldn’t leave him there. Moreover, the detectives had a couple of loose ends of their own to tie up. Keeping Kaneko in hot water until after the killer is foiled allows the tension to drop somewhat less than precipitously and transitions towards resolution of the other, lesser, loose ends. The result, I hope, is that when you’ve read the final sentence, you feel that order has been restored and all is right with the world.

The end.